- Arch - The arch is the curved area on the bottom of the foot
between the heel and the ball.
- BMI (Body Mass Index) - Your BMI, or Body Mass Index, is
a ratio of weight to height, which can be useful in determining whether you
should consider gaining or losing weight. A BMI of 22-25 is considered to
be normal and healthy for most people. People with a BMI over 25 are generally
considered to be overweight and are therefore putting more stress on their
feet than people with a BMI below 25. People with a BMI over 25 are therefore
at greater risk of developing Plantar Fasciitis. You can calculate your BMI
by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in meters squared. There
is a handy BMI calculator available on
the R.E.S.C.U.E. Program™ page of this site.
- Calcaneal Spur Syndrome - Calcaneal Spur Syndrome is another
name for Heel Spur Syndrome.
- Calcaneus - The Calcaneus is the heel bone.
- Corticosteroid Injection - A Corticosteroid Injection delivers
corticosteroids, which reduce swelling, to damaged tissue via hypodermic needle.
Corticosteroid injections provide short-term relief from pain and swelling;
however, the long-term effectiveness of corticosteroid injections for Plantar
Fasciitis has been questioned by some studies.
- Custom Orthotic - A Custom Orthotic is an Orthotic that is
specifically designed to the shape and size of a particular individual's foot.
- Deep Water Running - Deep water running is an exercise that
is commonly performed as a substitute to weight bearing exercises (running,
walking, skiing) and can be used to treat patients suffering from injuries
of the back, legs and feet.
- Dorsiflexion - When you position your foot such that your
toes are pulled toward your body you are dorsiflexing your foot.
- Electric Stimulation - Electric stimulation therapy is characterized
by a low voltage stimulation targeted to cause a muscle contraction. This
is done by placing pads with electrodes over the muscle group to be exercised.
When the stimulation is applied through the pads, the signal stimulates the
muscle causing it to contract.
- Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy (surgery) - Endoscopic Plantar
Fasciotomy is a surgery performed by inserting a highly specialized micro-camera
into the heel area, visualizing the plantar fascia and detaching a portion
of it from the heel bone to relieve pulling on the injured area.
- Eversion - Eversion is the technical term for tilting your
foot outward along its lengthwise axis.
- Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) - Extracorporeal
Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), introduced in the early 1990s, is a procedure in
which a device sends pulses of high-pressure shock or sound waves to an affected
area. These shock waves are thought to break up scar tissue in the fascia
thereby speeding the heeling process. There is some controversy surrounding
the effectiveness of ESWT, and it is still considered by many to be an experimental
- Fan Method of Taping - Applying tape to foot using the Fan
Method reduces stress to the Plantar Fascia by reinforcing the natural strength
of the foot's arch.
- Fascia (pl. fasciae) - A fascia is a strip of connective
tissue enveloping or binding together muscles.
- Fasciitis - Fasciitis is a swelling of the fascia.
- Flat Feet - People with flat feet have curves on the bottoms
of their feet that are considered to be less pronounced than normal. The arch
structure of a flat foot provides less support than normal, so more stress
is placed on the plantar fascia with each step. People with flat feet tend
to over-pronate, or roll their feet inward.
- Gait - An individual's gait describes the pattern of motion
experienced by their body when they walk or run.
- Gastrocnemius (Gastroc) Muscle - The gastrocnemius muscle
is the largest muscle in your calf.
- Gluteal Muscles - The gluteal muscles make up your buttocks.
- Hamstring Muscle - The hamstring muscle is on the back of
- Heel Pain Syndrome - A term commonly used interchangeably
with Plantar Fasciitis. The term Heel Pain Syndrome is a bit of a misnomer
when referring to Plantar Fasciitis, as there are actually many possible causes
of heel pain, Plantar Fasciitis being just one.
- Heel Spur - A heel spur is a buildup of calcium on the heel
bone, most commonly on the bottom toward the front. Many people who have Plantar
Fasciitis also have heel spurs; however, the spurs themselves are generally
not the cause of heel pain associated with Plantar Fasciitis. Rather, they
are the result of the body's reaction to the pain caused by microtears in
the plantar fascia where it connects to the heel.
- Heel Spur Syndrome - A term commonly used interchangeably
with Plantar Fasciitis. The term Heel Spur Syndrome is a bit of a misnomer
when referring to Plantar Fasciitis, as not all people with Plantar Fasciitis
have heel spurs, and not all people with heel spurs have problems with their
- High Arches - People whose feet have high arches have curves
considered to be steeper than normal on the bottoms of their feet. The centers
of the bottoms of their feet are therefore further from the ground when they
walk, and more stress is placed on their plantar fascia as the foot tries
to flatten with each step. People with high arches have stable feet, but are
more likely than others to over-supinate, or roll their feet outward when
- Inversion - Inversion is the technical term for tilting your
foot inward along its lengthwise axis.
- Iontophoresis - Iontophoresis is the delivery of topical
corticosteroids via electrical current. Corticosteroid cream is rubbed on
the skin over the affected area and an electrical current is applied. Electrons
push the cream through the pores of the skin. The corticosteroid cream has
an anti-inflammatory effect.
- Low-Dye Method of Taping - Applying tape to foot using the
Low-Dye Method counteracts pronation.
- Low Intensity Laser Therapy - Low intensity laser therapy
is a form of phototherapy which involves the application of low power monochramatic
and coherent light to injuries and lesions to stimulate healing.
- Magnetic Insoles - Some have theorized that magnetic fields
have healing powers on damaged tissue. With this theory in mind, several companies
have developed Magnetic Insoles. Some people believe that wearing Magnetic
Insoles in your shoes can help cure Plantar Fasciitis. Independent studies
have generally not supported this theory.
- Metatarsal Heads - The Metatarsal Heads, at the base of each
of your toes, make up the ball of your foot.
- Microtears - Microtears are small breaks in the fibers of
- Modified Low-Dye Method of Taping - The Modified Low-Dye
Method of Taping combines the Fan Method and the Low-Dye Method to provide
both arch support and a reduction of pronation.
- NSAID's - NSAID's, or Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs,
are taken to help control immediate pain and reduce swelling. Examples of
NSAID's include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Aleve) and naproxen (Naprosyn).
- Orthotic Night Splint - A Night Splint is a device which
positions your feet properly while you sleep in order to keep the plantar
fascia lengthened while it heals overnight.
- Orthotics - Orthotics are specialized mechanical devices
which support or supplement weakened joints or limbs. In the case of plantar
fasciitis, they usually take the form of foam or gel inserts that are placed
in the shoe to add cushioning and support to the foot.
- Over-the-Counter or Prefabricated Orthotic - An over-the-Counter
or Prefabricated orthotic is a shoe insert that can be purchased at a drug
store or shoe store and is usually much less expensive than a custom orthotic.
- Pes Cavus - Pes Cavus is the Latin term for a foot with a
- Pes Planus - Pes Planus is the Latin term for a flat foot.
- Plantar Fascia - The Plantar Fascia is a strip of connective
tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot; it attaches to the front part
of the heel, fans outward toward the ball of the foot, and attaches again
at the base of each of the five toes.
- Plantar Fasciitis - Plantar Fasciitis is technically defined
as a swelling of the plantar fascia; however, the root cause of the heel pain
associated with Plantar Fasciitis is actually microtears in the tissue. This
tearing may or may not be accompanied by discernable swelling.
- Plantarflexion - When you position your foot such that your
toes are pointed away from your body you are plantarflexing your foot.
- Pronate - Pronation, the opposite of supination, is the tendency
to roll one's ankles inward when standing, walking or running. Over-Pronation
causes stress to distribute unevenly through the plantar fascia.
- Quadriceps Muscles - The quadriceps muscles are the large
muscles on the front of your thigh.
- Repetitive Load Bearing - Repetitive Load Bearing is the
process of applying stress to something over and over again. Many of our daily
activities, such as walking or running, are repetitive load bearing activities
that focus stress on the plantar fascia.
- R.E.S.C.U.E. Program™ - The R.E.S.C.U.E. Program™
was designed by Heeling Solutions to educate people suffering from plantar
fasciitis and to help them rid themselves of their heel pain. R.E.S.C.U.E.
stands for Recognize, Educate, Solve, Consistency, Upkeep and Enjoy Life.
- Soleus Muscle - The soleus muscle is a smaller muscle in
- Supinate - Supination, the opposite of pronation, is the
tendency to roll one's ankles outward when standing, walking or running. Over-Supination
causes stress to distribute unevenly through the plantar fascia.
- Theraband™ - A Theraband™ is an elastic piece
of rubber designed to help exercise muscles.
- Ultrasound therapy - Ultrasound therapy is the delivery of
high frequency sound waves to an affected area. A gel is used between
the ultrasound machine and the skin to keep the sound waves from reflecting
off the skin.